New Harmony, Indiana

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We must receive this form in our office prior to the auction, completed and signed. One letter will satisfy requirements for all four live auctions. All bids are final at Auction: You are responsible for payment in full. No bidder may retract a bid made during the sale for any reason. Any terms and conditions posted at the auction, printed in sale brochures, form signs, publicly announced or otherwise published are incorporated herein by reference.

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The law in the state of Indiana shall govern the provisions of this bid card. Jurisdiction for any action brought shall lie exclusively in a court of competent jurisdiction in the judicial district in Indianapolis, Indiana. If your bidder card is lost or stolen, immediately report to Gallivan Auctioneers auction office as bids made with this bidder number will be your responsibility. While the Owenite social experiment was an economic failure two years after it began, the community made some important contributions to American society.

New Harmony became known as a center for advances in education and scientific research. Town residents established the first free library, a civic drama club, and a public school system open to men and women. Its prominent citizens included Owen's sons: Robert Dale Owen , an Indiana congressman and social reformer who sponsored legislation to create the Smithsonian Institution ; David Dale Owen , a noted state and federal geologist; William Owen, a New Harmony businessman; and Richard Owen , Indiana state geologist, Indiana University professor, and first president of Purdue University.

The town also served as the second headquarters of the U. Many of the town's old Harmonist buildings have been restored. These structures, along with others related to the Owenite community, are included in the New Harmony Historic District. Contemporary additions to the town include the Roofless Church and Atheneum.

It was the second of three towns built by the pietist , communal religious group, known as Harmonists, Harmonites, or Rappites. The Harmonists settled in the Indiana Territory after leaving Harmony, Pennsylvania , where westward expansion, the area's rising population, jealous neighbors, and the increasing cost of land threatened the Society's desire for isolation.

Baker, and Ludwick Shirver Ludwig Schreiber traveled west in search of a new location for their congregation, one that would have fertile soil and access to a navigable waterway. The first Harmonists left Pennsylvania in June and traveled by flatboat to their new land in the Indiana Territory.

In May the last of the Harmonists who had remained behind until the sale of their town in Pennsylvania was completed departed for their new town along the Wabash River. Visitors to Harmony commented on the commercial and industrial work being done in this religious settlement along the Wabash River.

The property included an orderly town, "laid out in a square", with a church, school, store, dwellings for residents, and streets to create "the most beautiful city of western America, because everything is built in the most perfect symmetry". Manufactured goods included cotton, flannel, and wool cloth, yarn, knit goods, tin ware, rope, beer, peach brandy, whiskey, wine, wagons, carts, plows, flour, beef, pork, butter, leather, and leather goods. The Harmonist community continued to thrive during the s, but correspondence from March 6, , between Rapp and his adopted son, Frederick, indicates that the Harmonists planned to sell their Indiana property and were already looking for a new location.

Robert Owen was a social reformer and wealthy industrialist who made his fortune from textile mills in New Lanark , Scotland. Owen, his twenty-two-year-old son, William, and his Scottish friend Donald McDonald [28] sailed to the United States in to purchase a site to implement Owen's vision for "a New Moral World" of happiness, enlightenment, and prosperity through education, science, technology, and communal living.

Owen believed his utopian community would create a "superior social, intellectual and physical environment" based on his ideals of social reform.

In January he signed the agreement to purchase the town, renamed it New Harmony, and invited "any and all" to join him there. How long it will require to accustom themselves to their new mode of living, I am unable to determine. When Robert Owen returned to New Harmony in April he found seven hundred to eight hundred residents and a "chaotic" situation, much in need of leadership. Under the preliminary constitution, members would provide their own household goods and invest their capital at interest in an enterprise that would promote independence and social equality.

Members would render services to the community in exchange for credit at the town's store, but those who did not want to work could purchase credit at the store with cash payments made in advance. While Owen was away recruiting new residents for New Harmony, a number of factors that led to an early breakup of the socialist community had already begun. Members grumbled about inequity in credits between workers and non-workers. Despite the community's shortcomings, Owen was a passionate promoter of his vision for New Harmony.

Fretageot encouraged William Maclure , a scientist and fellow educator, to become a part of the venture. On January 26, , Fretegeot, Maclure, and a number of their colleagues, including Thomas Say , Josef Neef , Charles-Alexandre Lesueur , and others aboard the keelboat Philanthropist also called the "Boatload of Knowledge" , arrived in New Harmony to help Owen establish his new experiment in socialism.

On February 5, , the town adopted a new constitution, "The New Harmony Community of Equality", whose objective was to achieve happiness based on principles of equal rights and equality of duties. Cooperation, common property, economic benefit, freedom of speech and action, kindness and courtesy, order, preservation of health, acquisition of knowledge, and obedience to the country's laws were included as part of the constitution.

Children from the age of one to five were to be cared for and encouraged to exercise; children aged six to nine they were to be lightly employed and given education via observation directed by skilled teachers.

Youth from the ages of ten to twelve were to help in the houses and with the gardening. Teenagers from the age of twelve to fifteen were to receive technical training, and from fifteen to twenty their education was to be continued. Young adults from the ages of twenty to thirty were to act as a superintendent in the production and education departments.

Adults from the ages of thirty to forty were to govern the homes, and residents aged forty to sixty were to be encouraged to assist with the community's external relations or to travel abroad if they so desired. Although the constitution contained worthy ideals, it did not clearly address how the community would function and was never fully established. Two years were worn out in this way; at the end of which, I believe that not more than three persons had the least hope of success.

Most of the experimenters left in despair of all reforms, and conservatism felt itself confirmed. We had tried every conceivable form of organization and government. We had a world in miniature.

It appeared that it was nature's own inherent law of diversity that had conquered us Part of New Harmony's failings stemmed from three activities that Owen brought from Scotland to America. First, Owen actively attacked established religion, despite United States' constitutional guarantees of religious freedom and the separations of church and state.

Second, Owen remained stubbornly attached to the principles of the rationalist Age of Enlightenment , which drove away many of the Jeffersonian farmers Owen tried to attract. Thirdly, Owen consistently appealed to the upper class for donations, but found that the strategy was not as effective as it had been in Europe. As Robert Dale Owen explained, the members of the failed socialism experiment at New Harmony were "a heterogeneous collection of radicals, enthusiastic devotees to principle, honest latitudinarians, and lazy theorists, with a sprinkling of unprincipled sharpers thrown in," [48] and that "all cooperative schemes which provide equal remuneration to the skilled and industrious and the ignorant and idle must work their own downfall, for by this unjust plan, they must of necessity eliminate the valuable members and retain only the improvident, unskilled, and vicious.

In New Harmony work was divided into six departments, each with its own superintendent. These departments included agriculture, manufacturing, domestic economy, general economy, commerce, and literature, science and education.

A governing council included the six superintendents and an elected secretary. The larger community, which lasted until , was divided into smaller communities that led further disputes. Individualism replaced socialism in and New Harmony was dissolved in due to constant quarrels. The town's parcels of land and property were returned to private use. He died in Although Robert Owen's vision of New Harmony as an advance in social reform was not realized, the town became a scientific center of national significance, especially in the natural sciences, most notably geology.

William Maclure — , president of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia from to , came to New Harmony during the winter of — Thomas Say — , a friend of Maclure, was an entomologist and conchologist. His definitive studies of shells and insects, numerous contributions to scientific journals, and scientific expeditions to Florida , Georgia , the Rocky Mountains , Mexico , and elsewhere made him an internationally known naturalist.

Charles-Alexandre Lesueur — , a naturalist and artist, came to New Harmony aboard the Philanthropist. His sketches of New Harmony provide a visual record of the town during the Owenite period. As a naturalist, Lesueur is known for his classification of Great Lakes fishes. He returned to his native France in David Dale Owen — , third son of Robert Owen, finished his formal education as a medical doctor in However, after returning to New Harmony, David Dale Owen was influenced by the work of Maclure and Gerard Troost , a Dutch geologist, mineralogist, zoologist, and chemist who arrived in New Harmony in and later became the state geologist of Tennessee from to Headquartered at New Harmony, Owen conducted the first official geological survey of Indiana — After his appointment as U.

Geologist in , [59] Owen led federal surveys from to and from to of the Midwestern United States , which included Iowa , Missouri , Wisconsin , Minnesota , and part of northern Illinois. Kentucky —57 , Arkansas —59 , and Indiana —39 and — Several men trained Owen's leadership and influence: Runnels; [66] Amos Henry Worthen was the second state geologist of Illinois and the first curator of the Illinois State Museum; [67] and Fielding Bradford Meek became the first full-time paleontologist in lieu of salary at the Smithsonian Institution.

Richard Owen — , Robert Owen's youngest son, came to New Harmony in and initially taught school there. Army in , Owen became a professor of natural sciences at Indiana University in Bloomington, where an academic building is named in his honor.

In Owen became the first president of Purdue University , but resigned from this position in He continued teaching at IU until his retirement in Robert Dale Owen , eldest son of Robert Owen, was a social reformer and intellectual of national importance.

In he published "Moral Philosophy," the first treatise in the United States to support birth control, and returned to New Harmony in As a member of the U. House of Representatives from to , Owen introduced a bill in that established the Smithsonian Institution. He arranged for his brother, David Dale Owen, to sample a large number of possible building stones for the Smithsonian Castle. Among his critics in the Boston Investigator and at home in the New Harmony Advertiser were John and Margaret Chappellsmith, he formerly an artist for David Dale Owen's geological publications, and she a former Owenite lecturer.

In she established an experimental settlement at Nashoba, Tennessee, that allowed African American slaves to work to gain their freedom, but the community failed.

A liberal leader in the "free-thought movement," Wright opposed slavery, advocated woman's suffrage, birth control, and free public education. The couple also lived in Paris, France , and in Cincinnati, Ohio , where they divorced in Wright died in Cincinnati in The history of education at New Harmony involves several teachers who were already well-established in their fields before they moved to New Harmony, largely through the efforts of William Maclure. By the time Maclure arrived in New Harmony he had already established the first Pestalozzian school in America.

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